In the News: Race, bias, and the police – scholarly resources

Last week, the campus community came together to share and process thoughts and feelings regarding recent events involving police related deaths of African American men and the violent aftermath. The event was sponsored by the Division of Student Affairs, Counseling and Psychological Services, Campus Life, and the Department of Psychology.


flickr photo shared by Cayusa under a Creative Commons ( BY-NC ) license

During Monday’s conversation, hosts and audience members discussed ideas and resources that we thought some of you would like to explore further. (Links open in a new window and may require authentication with your SWAN username and password.)

UPDATE: The Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment has published a special issue titled “Police shooting of unarmed African American Males: Implications for the individual, the family, and the community.” It is freely available to the public until August 31, 2016. Click here to access.

Race-based trauma
Also known as post-traumatic slave syndrome, race-based traumatic stress, this concept is based on the theory that racial discrimination can be experienced as psychological trauma. Below are some scholarly resources to explore this theory further. PRO TIP-> To continue the search, try different keyword combinations like “racial trauma” or (post AND slave AND syndrome)

Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13-105.

DeGruy, J. (2005). Post-traumatic slave syndrome: America’s legacy of enduring injury and healing. Milwaukie, Oregon: Uptone Press. (Book available through GIL Express)

Hardy, K. V. (2013). Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 22(1), 24-28.

Polanco-Roman, L., Danies, A., & Anglin, D. M. (2016). Racial discrimination as race-based trauma, coping strategies, and dissociative symptoms among emerging adults. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.

Wilkins, E., Whiting, J., Watson, M., Russon, J., & Moncrief, A. (2013). Residual effects of slavery: What clinicians need to know. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 35(1), 14-28.

Police training and use of force
Representatives from Campus Safety discussed officer training protocols and techniques they use to prevent violence and combat bias. Here are some reports and examples from the literature about police training and conduct. PRO TIP-> Try using these keywords in your own searches: police, training, “law enforcement officer”, “community policing”, “racial bias”

Crime and Police Conduct (Short report from CQ Researcher explores the question “Is a national crime wave starting?”)

Police Tactics: Has U.S. law enforcement become militarized? (Full report from CQ Researcher)

Police Brutality (Issues & Controversies analysis of the question: Do U.S. police departments use appropriate force when dealing with the public?)

Correll, J., Hudson, S. M., Guillermo, S., & Ma, D. S. (2014). The Police Officer’s Dilemma: A Decade of Research on Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot. Social & Personality Psychology Compass, 8(5), 201-213.

Hopkins, K. (2015). “Deadly force” revisited: Transparency and accountability for D.C. police use of force. National Lawyers Guild Review, 72(3), 129-160.

Sozer, M. A., & Merlo, A. V. (2013). The impact of community policing on crime rates: does the effect of community policing differ in large and small law enforcement agencies?. Police Practice & Research, 14(6), 506-521.

Implicit Bias
Implicit bias
refers to the automatic and involuntary biases we experience as a result of a lifetime of direct and indirect messaging about ourselves and others. We may not be aware of our own implicit biases, and they may be in direct conflict with our deeply held beliefs. PRO TIP-> Try these keywords for more articles like the ones below: “social bias”, “racial bias”, “implicit attitudes”, “implicit association”, “implicit bias”

Project Implicit – Harvard University Discover your own implicit associations by participating in Project Implicit. Multiple online tests measure the strength of automatic associations between concepts (like black people or women) and value judgments (like “bad” or “clumsy”).

Ito, T. A., Friedman, N. P., Bartholow, B. D., Correll, J., Loersch, C., Altamirano, L. J., & Miyake, A. (2015). Toward a comprehensive understanding of executive cognitive function in implicit racial bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(2), 187-218.

Marks, D. L. (2015). Who, me? Am I guilty of implicit bias?. Judges’ Journal, 54(4), 20-25.

van Nunspeet, F., Ellemers, N., & Derks, B. (2015). Reducing implicit bias: How moral motivation helps people refrain from making ‘automatic’ prejudiced associations. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1(4), 382-391.

Data and Statistics
Last but not least, we want to share with you some resources on finding reliable data about these issues. We’ve compiled a list of sources for statistics on the Statistical Resources for Assignments! LibGuide. See the Crime & Justice tab for resources related to this topic. Additionally, here are some government reports related to police use of force.

Banks, D., Couzens, L., & Planty, M. (2015). Assessment of coverage in the Arrest-Related Deaths program. (Bureau of Justice Statistics Report No. NCJ 249099). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Hyland, S., Langton, L., & Davis, E. (2015). Police use of nonfatal force, 2002–11. (Bureau of Justice Statistics Report No. NCJ 249216). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Institute of Justice. (1999). Use of force by police: Overview of national and local data (Bureau of Justice Statistics Report No. NCJ 176330). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Where to go next
If you would like help or more suggestions for researching any of these or other topics, please consult a librarian. We are accessible via phone, email, instant message, or text. Find us here: http://clayton.libanswers.com/

If you are experiencing any feelings of anxiety, depression, or grief as a result of these events or you would like someone to talk to process any feelings you may have, please contact Counseling and Psychological Services for support or referral.

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